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On Paragraph(精华资源)

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以下内容长期搜集整理,对口头或书面表达中段落结构有很大的帮助;书面写作要正确开展段落,口语回答也要有结构,结构主要取决于各段落,一定要认真研读,由于内容来源未作详细记录,请勿转载,仅供本次口语培训使用。如有好的相关资源,请和我联系,谢谢.

What is a paragraph 1 ?

A paragraph is a self-contained unit of a discourse in writing dealing with a particular point or idea. Paragraphs consist of one or more sentences. The start of a paragraph is indicated by beginning on a new line.

A written work―be it an essay or a story―is about an idea or concept. An essay explains it; a story narrates it. To help the reader understand and enjoy it, the explanation or narration is broken down into units of text, the paragraph. In an essay, each paragraph explains or demonstrates a key point or thought of the central idea, usually to inform or persuade. In fiction, each paragraph serves to advance the plot, develop a character, describe a scene or narrate an action―all to entertain the reader. All paragraphs support each other, leading the reader from the first idea to the final resolution of the written work.

What is a paragraph 2 ?

A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. Learning to write good paragraphs will help you as a writer stay on track during your drafting and revision stages. Good paragraphing also greatly assists your readers in following a piece of writing. You can have fantastic ideas, but if those ideas aren't presented in an organized fashion, you will lose your readers (and fail to achieve your goals in writing).

The Basic Rule: Keep One Idea to One Paragraph

The basic rule of thumb with paragraphing is to keep one idea to one paragraph. If you begin to transition into a new idea, it belongs in a new paragraph. There are some simple ways to tell if you are on the same topic or a new one. You can have one idea and several bits of supporting evidence within a single paragraph. You can also have several points in a single paragraph as long as they relate to the overall topic of the paragraph. If the single points start to get long, then perhaps elaborating on each of them and placing them in their own paragraphs is the route to go.

Elements of a Paragraph

To be as effective as possible, a paragraph should contain each of the following: Unity, Coherence, A Topic Sentence, and Adequate Development. As you will see, all of these traits overlap. Using and adapting them to your individual purposes will help you construct effective paragraphs.

Unity

The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus. If it begins with a one focus or major point of discussion, it should not end with another or wander within different ideas.

Coherence

Coherence is the trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader. You can help create coherence in your paragraphs by creating logical bridges and verbal bridges.

Logical bridges

  • The same idea of a topic is carried over from sentence to sentence
  • Successive sentences can be constructed in parallel form

Verbal bridges

  • Key words can be repeated in several sentences
  • Synonymous words can be repeated in several sentences
  • Pronouns can refer to nouns in previous sentences
  • Transition words can be used to link ideas from different sentences

A topic sentence

A topic sentence is a sentence that indicates in a general way what idea or thesis the paragraph is going to deal with. Although not all paragraphs have clear-cut topic sentences, and despite the fact that topic sentences can occur anywhere in the paragraph (as the first sentence, the last sentence, or somewhere in the middle), an easy way to make sure your reader understands the topic of the paragraph is to put your topic sentence near the beginning of the paragraph. (This is a good general rule for less experienced writers, although it is not the only way to do it). Regardless of whether you include an explicit topic sentence or not, you should be able to easily summarize what the paragraph is about.

Adequate development

The topic (which is introduced by the topic sentence) should be discussed fully and adequately. Again, this varies from paragraph to paragraph, depending on the author's purpose, but writers should beware of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences. It's a pretty good bet that the paragraph is not fully developed if it is that short.

Some methods to make sure your paragraph is well-developed:

  • Use examples and illustrations
  • Cite data (facts, statistics, evidence, details, and others)
  • Examine testimony (what other people say such as quotes and paraphrases)
  • Define terms in the paragraph
  • Compare and contrast
  • Evaluate causes and reasons
  • Examine effects and consequences
  • Analyze the topic
  • Describe the topic
  • Offer a chronology of an event (time segments)

Topic sentence + Supporting details

Example:

There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. 

First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price.

Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university.

Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

Prewriting Paragraphs

What is the prewriting stage?

The prewriting stage is when you think carefully and organize your ideas for your paragraph before you begin writing.

Six Prewriting Steps:

1. Think carefully about what you are going to write. Ask yourself: What question am I going to answer in this paragraph or essay? How can I best answer this question? What is the most important part of my answer? How can I make an introductory sentence (or thesis statement) from the most important part of my answer? What facts or ideas can I use to support my introductory sentence? How can I make this paragraph or essay interesting? Do I need more facts on this topic? Where can I find more facts on this topic?

2. Open your notebook. Write out your answers to the above questions. You do not need to spend a lot of time doing this; just write enough to help you remember why and how you are going to write your paragraph or essay.

3. Collect facts related to your paragraph or essay topic. Look for and write down facts that will help you to answer your question. Timesaving hint: make sure the facts you are writing are related to the exact question you are going to answer in your paragraph or essay.

4. Write down your own ideas. Ask yourself: What else do I want to say about this topic? Why should people be interested in this topic? Why is this topic important?

5. Find the main idea of your paragraph or essay. Choose the most important point you are going to present. If you cannot decide which point is the most important, just choose one point and stick to it throughout your paragraph or essay.

6. Organize your facts and ideas in a way that develops your main idea. Once you have chosen the most important point of your paragraph or essay, you must find the best way to tell your reader about it. Look at the facts you have written. Look at your own ideas on the topic. Decide which facts and ideas will best support the main idea of your paragraph. Once you have chosen the facts and ideas you plan to use, ask yourself which order to put them in the paragraph. Write down your own note set that you can use to guide yourself as you write your paragraph or essay.

Writing Paragraphs
What is the writing stage?

The writing stage is when you
turn your ideas into sentences.

Five Writing Steps:

1. Open your notebook and word processor.
2. Write the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and closing sentence.
3. Write clear and simple sentences to express your meaning.
4. Focus on the main idea of your paragraph.
5. Use the dictionary to help you find additional words to express your ideas.

Editing Paragraphs
What is the editing stage?

The editing stage is when you check your paragraph for mistakes and correct them.

Grammar and Spelling

1. Check your spelling.
2. Check your grammar.
3. Read your essay again.
4. Make sure each sentence has a subject.
5. See if your subjects and verbs agree with each other.
6. Check the verb tenses of each sentence.
7. Make sure that each sentence makes sense.

Style and Organization

1. Make sure your paragraph has a topic sentence.
2. Make sure your supporting sentences focus on the main idea.
3. Make sure you have a closing sentence.
4. Check that all your sentences focus on the main idea.
5. See if your paragraph is interesting.

Definition Paragraph

When writing a definition paragraph, you take a thing or an idea and explain what it is.

Example:  Write a paragraph giving the definition of a pest.

The following words can help you to write a good definition paragraph:

1. "is defined as"

Example:  A pest is defined as any animal or plant that damages crops, forests, or property.

2. "is a kind of"

Example:  A pest is a kind of animal or plant that damages crops, forests, or property.

 

Sequence Paragraph

In a sequencing paragraph, you are writing to describe a series of events or a process in some sort of order. Usually, this order is based on time.

Example:    Write a paragraph outlining how a person becomes the prime minister.

The following words can help you to write a good sequence paragraph.

Helper Words:

Order. Time

first, second, third, etc. recently

in the beginning   previously

before  afterwards

then when

after after

finally  

at last 

subsequently

Order

first, second, third, etc.

Example:   First, you need to become a leader of a political party. Second, you need to win a seat in the House of Commons. Third, your party must have a majority of seats.

 

in the beginning

Example:   In the beginning, you need to become a leader of a political party.

before

Example:   Before becoming the prime minister, you need to become the leader of a political party.

then

Example:   Then, you must win a seat in the House of Commons.

after

Example:   After winning a seat in the House of Commons, you must make sure you have a majority of seats.

finally

Example:   Finally, after all these steps, you can call yourself the prime minister.

at last

Example:   At last, you can call yourself the prime minister.

subsequently

Example:   Subsequently, you must make sure you have a majority of seats in the House of Commons.

Time

recently

Example:   She was recently elected prime minister.

previously

Example:   She is the new prime minister. Previously, she worked as a lawyer in Toronto.

afterwards

Example:   She won the party leadership last year. Afterwards, she won the election.

when

Example:   When she won the party leadership, she was still working as a lawyer.

after

Example:   After winning a seat in the House of Commons, you must make sure you have a majority of seats.

Classification Paragraph

When writing a classification paragraph, you group things or ideas into specific categories.

Example:   Write a paragraph discussing two types of energy resources.

The following words can help you to write a good classification paragraph:

Helper Words:

is a kind of

can be divided into

is a type of

falls under

belongs to

is a part of

fits into

is grouped with

is related to

is associated with

is a kind of

Coal is a kind of non-renewable resource.

can be divided into

Energy resources can be divided into two types.

is a type of

Coal is a type of non-renewable resource.

falls under

Coal falls under the category of non-renewable resources.

belongs to

Coal belongs to the category of non-renewable resources.

is a part of

Coal is a part of the category of non-renewable resources.

fits into

Coal fits into the category of non-renewable resources.

is grouped with

Coal is grouped with non-renewable resources.

is related to

Coal is related to other non-renewable resources.

is associated with

Coal is associated with other non-renewable resources.

 

Explanation Paragraph

In an explanation paragraph, you need to explain how or why something happens. Very often in social studies class, you will be asked to explore causes and effects of certain events.

Example:       Write a paragraph explaining why so many Europeans moved to Canada during the nineteenth century.

The following words can help you to write a good explanation paragraph:

Helper Words:

Cause   Effect

because   therefore

since thus

as a result of   consequently

is due to  

hence

it follows that

if . . . then

Cause

because

Example:   People moved to Canada from Europe during the nineteenth century because they had poor living conditions in Europe.

since

Example:   Since living conditions in Europe were terrible, many people moved to Canada.

as a result of

Example:   People moved to Canada from Europe as a result of poor living conditions in Europe.

is due to / was due to

Example:   The large influx of people to Canada was due to economic pressures in Europe.

Effect

therefore

Example:   Living conditions in Europe were terrible. Therefore, many people moved to Canada for a better life.

thus

Example:   Living conditions in Europe were terrible. Thus, many people moved to Canada for a better life.

consequently

Example:   Living conditions were terrible in Europe. Consequently, many people moved to Canada.

hence

Example:   Living conditions were terrible in Europe. Hence, many people moved to Canada.

it follows that

Example:   Living conditions were terrible in Europe. It follows that many people moved to Canada.

if ... then

Example:   If living conditions were better in Europe, then fewer people would have moved to Canada.

Compare and Contrast Paragraph

In a compare and contrast paragraph, you write about the similarities and differences between two or more people, places, things, or ideas.

Example:  Write a paragraph comparing the weather in Vancouver and Halifax.

The following words can help you to write a good compare and contrast paragraph:

Helper Words:

Similarities    Differences

is similar to  the other hand

both however

also  but

too   in contrast

as well differs from

while

unlike

 

Similarities

is similar to

Example:   Spring weather in Vancouver is similar to spring weather in Halifax.

both

Example:   Both Vancouver and Halifax have rain in the spring.

also

Example:   Halifax also has a rainy spring season.

too

Example:   Halifax has a rainy spring season, too.

as well

Example:   As well, Halifax has rainy spring season.

Differences

on the other hand

Example:   On the other hand, winter is much colder in Halifax.

however

Example:   However, winter is much colder in Halifax.

but

Example:   Vancouver has a mild winter, but Halifax has a cold one.

in contrast to

Example:   In contrast to Vancouver, Halifax has a cold winter.

differs from

Example:   Halifax differs from Vancouver by having a cold winter.

while

Example:   While Vancouver has a mild winter, Halifax has a cold winter.

 

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